Sunday, 25 October 2015

Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview

Vaginal or uterine bleeding 


Vaginal or uterine bleeding 

Vaginal bleeding normally occurs during a woman's menstrual cycle, when she gets her period. Every woman's period is different.

    Most women have cycles between 24 and 34 days apart. It usually lasts 4 to 7 days.
    Young girls may get their periods anywhere from 21 to 45 days or more apart.
    Women in their 40s will often notice their period occurring less often.

Many women have abnormal bleeding between their periods at some point in their lives. Abnormal bleeding occurs when you have:

    Heavier bleeding than usual
    Bleeding for more days than normal (menorrhagia)
    Spotting or bleeding between periods
    Bleeding after sex
    Bleeding after menopause
    Bleeding while pregnant
    Bleeding before age 9
    Menstrual cycles longer than 35 days or shorter than 21 days
    No period for 3 to 6 months (amenorrhea)

Causes

There are many causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

HORMONES

Most often, abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the cause, doctors call the problem dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). DUB is more common in teenagers or in women who are approaching menopause.

It is not always clear what causes hormone changes that lead to DUB. Hormone changes may be due to:

    Menopause or perimenopause
    Changes in birth control pills or hormone medicines

PREGNANCY

Pregnancy complications such as:

    Ectopic pregnancy
    Miscarriage

PROBLEMS WITH REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

Problems with reproductive organs may include:

    Infection in the uterus (pelvic inflammatory disease)
    Recent injury or surgery to the uterus
    Noncancerous growths in the womb, including uterine fibroids, uterine of cervical polyps, and adenomyosis
    Inflammation or infection of the cervix (cervicitis)
    Injury or disease of the vaginal opening (caused by intercourse, infection, polyp, genital warts, ulcer, or varicose veins)
    Endometrial hyperplasia (thickening or build-up of the lining of the uterus)

MEDICAL CONDITIONS

Problems with medical conditions may include:

    Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Cancer or precancer of the cervix, uterus, or (very rarely) fallopian tube
    Thyroid or pituitary disorders
    Diabetes
    Cirrhosis of the liver
    Lupus erythematosus
    Bleeding disorders

OTHER CAUSES

Other causes may include:

    Use of an intrauterine device (IUD) for birth control (may cause spotting)
    Cervical or endometrial biopsy or other procedures
    Changes in exercise routine
    Diet changes
    Recent weight loss or gain
    Stress
    Use of certain drugs such as blood thinners (warfarin or Coumadin)
    Sexual abuse
    An object in the vagina.

Vaginal or uterine bleeding 


Symptoms

Symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding include:

    Bleeding or spotting between periods
    Bleeding after sex
    Bleeding more heavily (passing large clots, needing to change protection during the night, soaking through a sanitary pad or tampon every hour for 2 to 3 hours in a row)
    Bleeding for more days than normal or for more than 7 days
    Menstrual cycle less than 28 days (more common) or more than 35 days apart
    Bleeding after you have gone through menopause

Bleeding from the rectum or blood in the urine may be mistaken for vaginal bleeding. To know for certain, insert a tampon into the vagina and check for bleeding.

Keep a record of your symptoms and bring these notes to your doctor. Your record should include:

    When menstruation begins and ends
    How much flow you have (count numbers of pads and tampons used, noting whether they are soaked)
    Bleeding between periods and after sex
    Any other symptoms you have

Exams and Tests

Your doctor will perform a physical exam, including a pelvic exam. Your doctor will ask questions about your medical history and symptoms

You may have certain tests, including:

    Pap test
    Urinalysis
    Thyroid functioning tests
    Complete blood count (CBC)
    Iron count
    Pregnancy test

Based on your symptoms, other tests may be needed. Some can be done in your health care provider's office. Others may be done at a hospital or surgical center:

    Sonohysterography: Fluid is placed in the uterus through a thin tube, while ultrasound images are made of the uterus.
    Ultrasound: Sound waves are used to make a picture of the pelvic organs.
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): In this imaging test, powerful magnets are used to create images of internal organs.
    Hysteroscopy: A thin device is inserted through the vagina and the opening of the cervix. It lets the provider view the inside of the uterus.
    Endometrial biopsy: Using a small or thin catheter (tube), tissue is taken from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). It is looked at under a microscope.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the specific cause of the vaginal bleeding, including:

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
    Endometriosis
    Uterine fibroids
    Ectopic pregnancy
    Polycystic ovary syndrome

Treatment may include hormonal medicines, pain relievers, and possibly surgery.

The type of hormone you take will depend on whether you want to get pregnant as well as your age.

    Birth control pills can help make your periods more regular.
    Hormones also can be given as an injection, as a vaginal cream, or through an IUD that releases hormones.
    An IUD is a birth control device that is inserted in the uterus. The hormones in the IUD are released slowly and may control abnormal bleeding.

Other medications given for abnormal uterine bleeding may include:

    Nnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen or naproxen) to help control bleeding and    breduce menstrual cramps
    Tranexamic acid to help treat heavy menstrual bleeding
    Antibiotics to treat infections

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your doctor if:

    You have soaked through a pad or tampon every hour for 2 to 3 hours.
    Your bleeding lasts longer than 1 week.
    You have vaginal bleeding and you are pregnant or could be pregnant.
    You have severe pain, especially if you also have pain when not menstruating.
    Your periods have been heavy or prolonged for three or more cycles, compared to what is normal for you.
    You have bleeding or spotting after reaching menopause.
    You have bleeding or spotting between periods or caused by having sex.
    Abnormal bleeding returns.
    Bleeding increases or becomes severe enough to cause weakness or lightheartedness.
    You have fever or pain in the lower abdomen
    Your symptoms become more severe or frequent.

Prevention

Aspirin may prolong bleeding and should be avoided if you have bleeding problems. Ibuprofen is usually works better than aspirin for relieving menstrual cramps. It also may reduce the amount of blood you lose during a period.

Alternative Names

Irregular menstruation; Heavy, prolonged, or irregular periods; Menorrhagia; Polymenorrhea; Metrorrhagia and other menstrual conditions; Abnormal menstrual periods; Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Source: Medicine Net  ., Medicine Health


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